Copyright (C) 1993, 1996, 1997 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.
Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.
Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the Foundation.
Way back a long time ago, Thompson and Ritchie were sitting opposite one another at the commissary, sipping coffees and discussing their evolving behemoth.
"This behemoth of ours," said Ken, "is becoming rather popular, wouldn't you say?" "Yes," said Dennis. "Every time I want to do a compilation, I have to wait for hours and hours. It's infuriating." They both agreed that the load on their system was too great. Both sighed, picked up their mugs, and went back to the workbench. Little did they know that an upper-management type was sitting just within earshot of their conversation.
"We are AT&T Bell Laboratories, aren't we?" the upper-management type thought to himself. "Well, what is our organization best known for?" The brill-cream in his hair glistened. "Screwing people out of lots of money, of course! If there were some way that we could keep tabs on users and charge them through the nose for their CPU time..."
The accounting utilities were born.
Seriously though, the accouting utilities can provide a system administrator with useful information about system usage--connections, programs executed, and utilization of system resources.
Information about users--their connect time, location, programs
executed, and the like--is automatically recored in files by
login. Four of them are of interest to us:
wtmp, which has records for each login and logout;
acct, which records each command that was run;
savacct, which contain
summaries of the information in
acct by user and
command, respectively. Each of the accounting utilities reports or
summarizes information stored in these files.
accan tell you how long a particular user or group of users were connected to your system, printing totals by day or for all of the entries in the
last, you can search the
wtmpfile for a particular user or terminal name (to which the user was connected). Of special interest are two fake users, `reboot' and `shutdown', which are recorded when the system is shut down or reboots.
last, you can search the
acctfile for a particular user, terminal, or command.
acctfile into the
usracctfile. It also generates reports about commands, giving the number of invocations, cpu time used, average core usage, etc.
utmpfiles in a human-readable format.
For more detailed information on any of these programs, check the chapter with the program title.
acct files seem to live in different places
and have different names for every variant of u*x that exists. The name
wtmp seems to be standard for the login accounting file, but the
process accounting file might be
pacct on your
system. To find the actual locations and names of these files on your
system, specify the
--help flag to any of the programs in this
package and the information will dumped to standard output.
Regardless of the names and locations of files on your system, this
manual will refer to the login accounting file as
wtmp and the
process accounting files as
I don't have any idea who originally wrote these utilities. If anybody
does, please send some mail to
[email protected] and I'll add
your information here!
Since the first alpha versions of this software in late 1993, many people have contributed to the package. They are (in alphabetical order):
Eric Backus <[email protected]>
gccand tacked on
-Walletc. He also noticed that
file_rd.cwas doing pointer arithmetic on a
void *pointer (non-ANSI).
Christoph Badura <[email protected]>
Michael Calwas <[email protected]>
Alan Cox <[email protected]>
Scott Crosby <[email protected]>
Solar Designer <[email protected]>
Dirk Eddelbuettel <[email protected]>
Jason Grant <[email protected]>
Kaveh R. Ghazi <[email protected]>
Susan Kleinmann <[email protected]>
Marek Michalkiewicz <[email protected]>
David S. Miller <[email protected]>
Walter Mueller <[email protected]>
Ian Murdock <[email protected]>
Luc I. Suryo <[email protected]>
Pedro A M Vazquez <[email protected]>
Marco van Wieringen <[email protected]>
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