last looks through the
wtmp file (which records
all logins/logouts) and prints information about connect times of users.
Records are printed from most recent to least recent. Records can be
specified by tty and username. tty names can be abbreviated: `last
0' is equivalent to `last tty0'.
Multiple arguments can be specified: `last root console' will print
all of the entries for the user
root and all entries logged in on
The special users
shutdown log in when the
system reboots or (surprise) shuts down. `last reboot' will
produce a record of reboot times.
last is interrupted by a quit signal, it prints out how far
its search in the
wtmp file had reached and then
weerapan ttyq6 184.108.40.206 Mon Feb 15 19:07 - 19:21 (00:13) weerapan ttyq6 220.127.116.11 Mon Feb 15 19:07 - 19:21 (00:13) interrupted at Mon Feb 15 19:07:52 1993
This program implements the features of regular u*x
last with a few
extra flags. When
last is invoked with no arguments, the output
looks like this:
gr151 ttyp2 ray.cs.oberlin.e Tue Feb 16 17:40 still logged in jhoggard ttyp2 csts.cs.oberlin. Tue Feb 16 17:39 - 17:39 (00:00) jstarr ttyp1 UNIX5.ANDREW.CMU Tue Feb 16 17:38 still logged in jberman ttypb 18.104.22.168 Tue Feb 16 17:34 still logged in alee ttyp7 csts.cs.oberlin. Tue Feb 16 17:34 still logged in jbrick ttyp2 ocvaxa.cc.oberli Tue Feb 16 17:33 - 17:36 (00:03) mbastedo ttypc ocvaxa.cc.oberli Tue Feb 16 17:25 - 17:26 (00:01) rgoodste ttypb ocvaxa.cc.oberli Tue Feb 16 17:22 - 17:26 (00:03) huttar ttyp9 lobby.ti.com Tue Feb 16 17:19 still logged in klutz ttyp3 22.214.171.124 Tue Feb 16 17:14 still logged in
wtmpfile has a problem (a time-warp, missing record, or whatever), print out an appropriate error.
lastprint the IP address instead of the hostname.
acchapter for information.
acchapter for information.
last's version number.
last's usage string and default locations of system files to standard output.
lasts I've tried, all of them have had problems parsing a
system clock change. Instead of modifying the entries that have been
read, they just ignore the change and give you incorrect values. GNU
last knows about clock changes and prints the correct times.
TANGIBLE RESULT: if you
diff the output of your
last and GNU
last, entries after (before, rather) a clock
change will be off by the amount of the clock change.
lasts that I've examined have the same problem here as
ac does--they log everyone out as soon as they see an ftp entry.
TANGIBLE RESULT: GNU
last will reflect the correct time
spent in an ftp session, so the totals that it gives will most likely be
greater than those given by the system
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